Water & Waste Water

  1. What is water pollution?

    The term water pollution, in general can be defined as any alteration in physical, chemical or biological properties of water by discharge of any sewage or industrial waste or of any liquid, gaseous or solid substances into water as may, or is likely to create nuisance or render such water harmful or injurious to public health of safety, or to domestic, commercial, industrial agricultural or other legitimate uses, or animal life and health.
  2. What are the major water pollutants?

    The large number of water pollutants may be broadly classified under the following categories:
    1. Inorganic pollutants
    2. Organic pollutants
    3. Thermal pollutants
    4. Radioactive pollutants
    5. Sediments
    6. Infectious agents
    7. Plant nutrients
  1. Inorganic pollutants

    Inorganic chemical pollutants are naturally found in the environment but due to human development these pollutants are often concentrated and released into the environment. The primary inorganic pollutants of concern are cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphorous and phosphate.

    Sources: Industrial effluent is the major source of Inorganic pollutants cause. E.g. sulfur dioxide from power plants, Ammonia from food processing waste and chemical waster from industrial byproducts. Agricultural fertilizers and surface runoffs are other sources of Inorganic pollutants. Harmful effects
    • Can kill the fish and other aquatic animals
    • Interfere with suitability of water for drinking and industrial use
    • Toxic pollutants tend concentrate in food chains
    • Degrade the soil microbial activity
    • Loss of vigilance ability
    • Loss of hand to eye coordination
    • NO2 gas can cause coughing, breathlessness, irritation of upper airways, bronco spasms, nauseas and vomiting
  2. Organic pollutants

    Organic pollutants are basically compounds which may be degraded by micro organisms. It usually uses up the available oxygen in the process of degradation. The optimum DO in natural water is 4-6 ppm and hence organic pollutants like sewage waste, oils etc must be removed to keep water free from such pollutants.

  3. Thermal pollutants

    Heated water is discharged as industrial effluents. In order to maintain the ecological balance temperature needs to be equalized with the receiving water body. This is an important criterion as increased temperature lowers dissolved DO in water.

  4. Radioactive pollutants

    Uranium and thorium wastes from mining, refining and its various industrial applications contribute to radioactive wastes. Nuclear power plants, medical and scientific research use are areas where such wastes may be created.

  5. Sediments

    Erosion removes soil and minerals from crop lands, forests, residential and corporate communities and carries it as sediment. Sediments represent the most extensive pollutants of surface water.

    Bottom sediments are important source of inorganic and organic matter in streams, fresh water, estuaries and oceans. Sediments are also repositories for trace metals such as Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, etc.
  6. Infectious agents

    Wastewater discharged from municipalities; sanatoria, tanning etc. may contain decease producing micro-organisms.

  7. Plant nutrients

    Growth stimulating plant nutrients include like nitrogen and phosphorous add to the BOD of the water. Presence of nutrients encourages algal growth, which decreases DO levels, and creates problems in treatments.

    1. Where does water pollution come from?

      The sources of water pollution are categorized as direct and indirect contaminant sources. Direct sources directly discharge contaminants into surface water which includes waste water from factories and sewage from housing colonies. Indirect sources include contaminants that enter the water supply from soil/groundwater systems and from the atmosphere via rain water. Soil and ground waters contain residue of agricultural practices (fertilizers, pesticides, etc.) and improperly disposed of industrial wastes. Atmospheric contaminants are also derived from human practices (such as gaseous emissions from automobiles, factories and even bakeries).
    2. How do we detect water pollution?

      Water is polluted by different contaminants and it can be detected by analyzing water samples in laboratory. Titration test is to detect hardness, dissolve oxygen, carbon dioxide and alkalinity. Colorimetric tests are performed to check PH, Phosphate, silica, ammonia and Sulfides. Heavy metal limit test is to determine the level of heavy metals.
    3. What is eutrophication? How it can be prevented?

      Increase in the concentration of phosphorus, nitrogen, and other plant nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem such as a lake is called eutrophication. This rise is nutrient level results in an accelerated life cycle of water plants like algae, water hyacinth, etc. Vegetative cover restricts entry of light and oxygen in the water. Moreover the degrading debris uses up all available dissolved oxygen in water rendering the water lifeless. Wastewater should be treated for removal of phosphorus and nitrates by various physiochemical and biological methods. Effective technologies are available in removal of nutrients along with BOD and COD. Conventional methods of separate nitrification and denitrification can also be adopted but with increased cost and area.
    4. Where does wastewater come from?

      Waste water comes from sewage which includes black water (human waste) and grey water (kitchen and laundry waste), septic tank discharge, industrial waste which includes effluent and process water. Agricultural practices also produce waste water by contaminating water with pesticides and fertilizers
    5. Why is it necessary to treat wastewater?

      Proper treatment of wastewater reduces health risks to humans, animals and prevents surface and groundwater contamination. Wastewater treatment helps to reuse the waste water and reduces the consumption of fresh water.
    6. What is a wastewater treatment system?

      Wastewater treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoffs (effluents), domestic, commercial and institutional. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer). Treatment system depends on the characteristics of wastewater and treated water quality to be achieved. The treatment plant includes primary treatment such as Screens, Grit Chambers & Clarifiers.
    7. What is aerobic wastewater treatment?

      Aerobic wastewater treatment is the process where bacteria requires oxygen for their respiration while oxidizing or consuming organic matter present in the wastewater. Aerobic bacteria can only convert organic compounds when plenty of oxygen is present, because they need it to perform any kind of chemical conversion. Usually the products they convert the contaminants to are carbon dioxide and water
    8. What is the MLSS and MLVSS?

      MLSS is Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids & MLVSS is Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids. MLSS is total suspende solids in the aeration tank whereas MLVSS is part of MLSS which actually concentration of biological matter present in aeration tank.
    9. What is F/M ratio?

      It is ration food to mass ratio ie BOD to the microorganism present in the aeration tank
    10. 12. What C:N:P means and what should be the ratio maintained?

      C– Carbon source which is food for biomass.– Either COD or BOD. Normally BOD is considered for the design purpose of aerobic treatment and COD concentration considered for anaerobic treatment. N – Nitrogen (TKN) which is Nutrients P — Phosphorus. Normally it is in the ratio of C:N:P i.e. 100: 5: 1 if BOD as Carbon source and 500:5:1 if COD as carbon source for calculation.

MBR – Membrane Bio Reactor

  1. What Is MBR?

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) is a combination of the activated sludge process and the membrane technology to provide an advanced level of organic and suspended solids removal.
  2. What are the advantages of MBR system over conventional system?

    1. Compact System
    2. High effluent quality
    3. High volumetric load possible
    4. High rate of degradation
    5. Possible to convert from existing conventional active sludge purification
    6. Removes bacteria up to 6 log
  3. Types of submerged/immersed MBR

    1. Flat Sheet
    2. Hollow fiber
    3. High volumetric load possible
    4. High rate of degradation
    5. Possible to convert from existing conventional active sludge purification
    6. Removes bacteria up to 6 log
  4. What is INDION®IPC MBR?

    INDION IPC MBR membranes are flat “integrated permeate channel membrane” (IPC membrane) which comprises two membrane layers coated directly on opposite surfaces of a tridimensional textile (3D textile) that is used as support of the membrane layers. The 3D fabric consists of two parallel fabric layers which are spaced apart by loops of monofilament threads, thereby forming a permeate channel between the membrane layers.
  5. What MLSS generally maintained in INDION®IPC MBR system?

    INDION®IPC MBR system have high MLSS compared conventional ASP and FMR system. INDION®IPC MBR system have MLSS 8000-12000 mg/lit.
  6. What are advantages of INDION®IPC MBR?

    1. Compact and modular Sewage Treatment Plant with in-built biological system and Ultra filtration system provide consistent treated water quality through membranes which will be free from bacteria & can be directly reused for gardening, car washing, cooling tower, building construction and all secondary purposes.
    2. Even in case of floating sludge a solid-free outlet quality can be guaranteed
    3. Operates at Higher MLSS (8000 – 12000 mg/lit) concentration in Aeration tank & higher sludge retention time hence low sludge generation results in reduction in cost for sludge handling system. Sludge generated is completely digested sludge.
    4. More efficient at High flux operation compared to other MBR technologies. Requires lower membrane surface area and plant footprint.
    5. Substantial reduction in energy consumption due to lower membrane area.
    6. State-of Art Low Fouling and fully back washable membrane helps to reduce cleaning chemical consumption and ensures long membrane life.
    7. Lower capital and operation cost of the plant
    8. Footprint can be reduced with available double & triple decker membrane arrangement.
    9. STP requires simple civil construction. Plant can be made functional or Upgraded in very short duration by installing prefabricated membrane modules.
    10. Fully Automated plant with user friendly Operation and minimal maintenance.
    11. Disinfection or more extensive tertiary treatment can be omitted. No need of additional tertiary treatment like chlorination, Sand filters, Activated Carbon filter or any filtration systems.
  7. What are the features of INDION®IPC MBR?

    1. Integrated Permeate Channel membranes (IPC ®) the first fully back-washable flat sheet membrane
    2. Double flux yield compared to other MBR (40 LMH for sewage & 20 LMH for effluent)
    3. Lower footprint and energy demand

FMR – Fluidized Media Reactor

  1. What is FMR?

    The Fluidized Media Reactor (FMR) system consists of an activated sludge aeration system where the bacteria is attached on carrier media. These carriers have an internal large surface for optimal contact water, air and bacteria.
  2. Difference between FMR and MBBR?

    MBBR and FMR are same technology with different name.
  3. What are the types of FMR media?

    1. PP Media

      1. High Protected Surface Area
      2. High physical & chemical resistance of media
      3. Low Annual Losses (3-5%)
    2. Carbon Impregnated Media

      1. Porous, adsorbing PU media impregnated with activated carbon
      2. High adsorbent capacity
      3. High internal porosity with extremely large surface area
  4. What are advantages of FMR system?

    1. Reduced power and operating costs
    2. No continuous sludge recycle
    3. Significant reduction in space due to high surface area and loading of media
    4. Less maintenance
    5. Easy up gradation and extension of existing wastewater treatment plants

UASB – Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed

  1. What is anaerobic wastewater treatment?

    Anaerobic treatment is a biological process carried out in the absence of O2 for the stabilization of organic materials. The stabilization of organic material by conversion to methane, carbon dioxide, new biomass and inorganic products. Anaerobic treatment is most suitable for wastewaters with COD concentrations in the high strength range (>2000 mg/l).
  2. What are types of anaerobic technologies?

    1. Fixed Film reactor
    2. Fluidised Bed reactor
    3. Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Be d (INDION® UASB)
  3. What is use of Three Phase separator in INDION® UASB ?

    Three Phase separator enables the reactor to separate gas, water and sludge mixtures.
  4. What are the advantages of INDION® UASB compared to conventional UASB?

    1. Feed distribution boxes ensures even distribution of effluent at bottom of UASB.
    2. Less power consumption by gravity feeding system.
    3. Higher Life of internals – FRP fabricated from Iso-Phthalic Resin & all the pipes are in HDPE
    4. Gas Dome INDION® UASB gas dome is of FRP Iso-Phthalic Resin which is inert to this environment.
    5. Less replacement of internals with life of internals more than 12-15 years
    6. Inlet & outlet launders are open and hence can be Inspected, cleaned & maintained easily.
    7. Even inlet distribution system, uniform outlet collection system and provision for scum removal which increases the efficiency of UASB and consistent performance over long period of operation.
    8. Higher gas generation
    9. Outside Lamella clarifier , which gives better control on the settling of solids.

SBR – Sequential Batch Reactor

  1. What is INDION® SBR?

    INDION® SBR is modification of conventional activated sludge process. In INDION® SBR, equalization, biological treatment and clarification of treated wastewater carried out in single tank with time control sequence.
  2. What are the steps involved in INDION® SBR system?

    1. Fill :- The inlet valve opens and the tank is being filled in, while mixing is provided by means of blower (air)
    2. React (aeration):- Aeration of the mixed liquor is performed during the second stage by the use of mechanical aerators or transferring air into fine bubble diffusers fixed to the floor of the tank (diffused aeration system).
    3. Settle (sedimentation/ Clarification):- No aeration or mixing is provided in the third stage and the settling of suspended solids starts.
    4. Draw (decant):- During the fourth stage the outlet valve opens and the “clean” supernatant liquor exits the tank.
  3. What are the advantages of INDION® SBR system?

    1. Flow rate fluctuations do not upset the plant as flow rate variation is limited to equalization tank only. In SBR, there is only level control of fixed volume.
    2. Operating flexibility and control – Better process control (MLSS, BOD loading and F/M ratio) as in batch process one can monitor and adjust the parameter very easily when compared with continuous process.
    3. Consistent good quality treated sewage for reuse application (BOD – <10, TSS – <20)
    4. Nitrification & Denitrification ,Primary clarification, biological treatment and secondary clarification can be achieved in a single reactor vessel.
    5. Elimination of clarifiers, sludge recirculation system.
  4. Can SBR have more than one tank design?

    Yes, we can design SBR system with multiple SBR basin as per influent flow rate.

NGPSTP – New Generation Packaged Sewage Treatment Plant

  1. What is NGPSTP?

    NGPSTP is New Generation Packaged Sewage treatment Plant which combines aeration and clarification in single unit.
  2. Does NGPSTP handles Total Nitrogen?

    Yes. NGPSTP has anoxic zone which can convert nitrates to nitrogen gas by denitrification process.
  3. Does NGPSTP require air blower?

    No. NGPSTP works on principle of rotating biological contactors.
  4. Does NGPSTP have lower operating cost compare to other STP technologies?

    Yes. Air blower and pumps are not required in NGPSTP due to which it has lower OPEX compare to other aerobic technologies.
  5. What are the features of NGPSTP?

    1. All in one single packaged STP
    2. Modular design
    3. High quality effluent
    4. 3 month sludge storage capacity
    5. Minimal maintenance
    6. GRP constriction – no corrosion
  6. What are the advantages of NGPSTP?

    1. Minimal land requirement
    2. Lower OPEX (operating cost)
    3. Lower CAPEX (Capital cost)


  1. What is osmosis?

    Osmosis refers to the passage of water through a thin semipermeable membrane from the side with low salt concentration to the side with higher salt concentration. This can happen even when the water level is higher on the high salt side and the water must move against a pressure difference. The bottom line is that osmosis refers to a concentration difference manifesting itself as a pressure difference.
  2. What is reverse osmosis (RO)?

    The other side of the coin is reverse osmosis. A difference in pressure is used to cause a difference in salt concentration. It is as though the pressure is being used to force the water molecules through the membrane while retaining the larger salt. Salt means any inorganic compound dissolved in water. When water is processed by reverse osmosis a large fraction of dissolved material is removed. The cleaner the input water the cleaner the output water will be. Conversely, if your input water is clean enough, you may not need an RO unit.
  3. What are the alternatives to RO?

    1. Distillation- It produces clean water by evaporating the water from the input and condensing the steam. It is highly energy-intensive and expensive unless you have a free source of waste heat. Distillation systems tend to be low capacity.
    2. Ion-exchange- The systems work by exchanging cations such as calcium and magnesium for the cation on the resin, usually sodium, potassium or hydrogen. They also exchange anions like carbonate and sulfate for the anion on the resin, usually chloride or hydroxyl. These systems can be recharged and should be as the resins are very expensive. The recharging may be just a small annoyance (as with sodium chloride resins) or potentially hazardous (as with hydrogen/hydroxyl resins).
  4. How do I know what is in my drinking water?

    If you are on city water, your local water must meet very strict Federal and State standards for purity. However, many areas use ground water (well water) high in minerals and salts. This can affect taste. All municipally treated water is chlorinated, and this can also affect taste and create odors in the water. If you are on a private well or spring, you should have your water tested. Contact AWS for specific recommendations.
  5. Will RO remove hardness minerals or help cut down on scale build-up in coffee pots, etc.?

    Yes! Most water contains “total dissolved solids” (TDS), which is roughly the total inorganic mineral content of the water, and these are removed. The reverse osmosis membrane separates these dissolved solids, or salts and flushes them down the drain.
  6. Will these systems remove lead?

    Yes. Both the RO membrane and the carbon block filter will reduce the lead. Carbon block filters use a lead-specific filter media combined with the carbon to reduce lead.
  7. Will RO systems remove parasites or cysts?

    Yes. The RO systems are certified for cyst removal.
  8. Are bacteria a problem with reverse osmosis systems?

    Yes and no. We have tested many of our systems for total bacteria counts over the years and have not found higher levels after the systems unless the systems sat for several days in between uses. However, in some cases, bacteria can grow, particularly when the source water is high in bacteria and/or low in chlorine residual. We also have Ultra-Violet Sterilizer Systems that disinfect water after it leaves the filter system, insuring water low in bacteria. The manufacturers state in their warranty information that the RO systems are designed to be installed on water that is disinfected or does not have dangerous bacteria such as e.coli.
  9. Are RO systems difficult to install?

    No. The RO systems come complete with tubing, fittings and items required to install it. In some cases you may need to drill a new hole in your sink, or you can use an existing hole to install the RO faucet. Typically a plumber will take 20 minutes to read the installation instructions and 1 to 1-1/2 hours to do a professional installation, but many homeowners have installed these themselves.
  10. The filters should be changed once a year. The membrane should be changed every 3 to 5 years depending on the TDS levels in the purified water. How often should I change the filters in an RO system?

    The filters should be changed once a year. The membrane should be changed every 3 to 5 years depending on the TDS levels in the purified water.
  11. What does mean by ‘Recovery’ of RO system?

    ‘Recovery’ of RO system is defined as ratio of Permeate Flow to the Feed Flow. % Recovery = Permeate Flow/Feed Flow X 100 For e.g. : If feed Flow is 100 m3/hr and Permeate Flow is 60 m3/hr Then Recovery of RO System is 60 %. Recovery = 60 m3/hr/100 m3/hr X 100 = 60 %.
  12. What is meaning of ‘Salt Passage’?

    Theoretically no salt should pass through RO membrane. But no membrane is 100% perfect. Hence some salt does pass through imperfections on the membrane. Passage of this salt is called ‘Salt Passage’. % Salt Passage = Permeate TDS/Feed TDS X 100
  13. What is meaning of ‘Salt rejection’?

    The percentage of Solute concentration removed from system feed water by the membrane is called ‘Salt rejection’. % Salt rejection = (1 – Salt Passage) X 100
  14. What does it mean by ‘Permeate water’?

    Purified product water produced by membrane is called ‘Permeate water’ of RO system.
  15. What is meaning of ‘Reject water’?

    Concentrated high TDS water is rejected by membrane is called ‘Reject water’ of RO system.
  16. What does mean by ‘Flux’?

    The rate of Permeate water transported per unit membrane area is called ‘Flux’ of RO system.
  17. What is MOC for RO membrane?

    Polyamide and Cellulose acetate are the MOC for RO membrane.
  18. Does RO system require cleaning?

    Yes, RO system needs cleaning frequently, to remove scaling and fouling from the membrane surface, to improve system performance.
  19. What factors affect RO performance?

    Pressure, temperature, recovery and feed water salt concentration are the factors which mainly influence the RO performance.
  20. Can I use RO reject water for other applications?

    If RO reject TDS is 1000 ppm, we can use it for gardening purpose and toilet flushing purpose. RO reject water having TDS 1000 ppm to 2000 ppm can also be selectively used for plantation as some plants survive and grow on High TDS water.
  21. Is pH correction required for RO system?

    In some process application where neutral pH (pH 7) is desired, pH correction is required for RO permeate water. pH of RO permeate water is slightly acidic in nature. It is around 5.5 to 6.4. Normally pH correction is carried out by caustic or Soda ash solution or by using degasser system. Degasser system removes CO2 (Carbon dioxide) from water and raise pH of water up to 7 (neutral pH).
  22. What is feed water limiting condition for RO system?

    Following are the feed water limiting condition for RO system.
    1. Chlorine : Nil
    2. Suspended solids : < 1 ppm
    3. Turbidity : < 1 NTU
    4. SDI : < 4
    5. BOD and COD : Nil ( In some cases 10 ppm tolerable )
    6. Heavy metals : Nil
    7. Oil and grease : Nil
    8. pH (for cellulose acetate membrane) : 4 – 6 (for Polyamide membrane) : 3 – 11
  23. Does chlorine affect RO membrane?

    Yes, if chlorine is present in RO feed water, it will oxidize RO membrane and will increase the pore size of RO membrane. It will deteriorate RO permeate water quality. Hence chlorine should be Nil in RO feed water. Activated carbon filter and SMBS dosing system are provided in pretreatment to prevent chlorine from entering RO membrane.
  24. What is tolerable limit for iron for RO system?

    Iron in feed water should be less than 0.3 ppm for trouble free and safe operation of RO system. Fouling will take place on RO membrane and it will reduce RO permeate flow, if iron is more than 0.3 ppm.
  25. What is the life of reverse osmosis membrane?

    RO membrane will last for at least 3 years with proper operation and maintenance of RO plant and with proper pretreatment system.
  26. What is the difference between brackish water and sea water?

    The primary difference between brackish water and seawater is in the amount of dissolved salts/solids. Seawater contains higher amounts of dissolved solids ie from 10000 mg/l to over 40000 mg/l of total dissolved solids. Water that has < 10000 mg/l dissolved solids is considered to be Brackish. The greater the salt content of the water, the higher the pressure or electric power needed to treat water using membranes, resulting in higher energy costs.

DTRO – Disc Tube Reverse Osmosis

  1. What is INDION® DTRO?

    Disc tube reverse osmosis (INDION® DTRO) technology has a distinct module structure than the spiral reverse osmosis technology. The feed flow enters the pressure vessel and reaches the disc in a short distance. With open flow channels, the feed flows 180 degrees over one side of the membrane and reverse flow to the other side, flowing on to the next disc. The reject and permeate flow down to the outlet. This flow reversal causes turbulence and an open channel flow path reduces the need for extensive pre-treatment.
  2. What is difference between Conventional RO and INDION® DTRO?

    The Conventional RO system requires extensive pre treatment to meet stringent feed limiting condition like SDI < 3, turbidity <1 NTU, O&G – NIL. Hence UF system is must as pre-treatment to meet above SDI limits. Membrane replacement cost is comparatively higher as entire membrane needs to be replaced. Whereas, DTRO requires less pre treatment due to its unique assembly feature and can handle SDI upto15 to 20, turbidity <10, O&G up to 10 ppm. Hence only Sand Filtration is sufficient as Pre-treatment to DTRO system. It can handle higher fluctuations in feed quality. Membrane replacement cost is lower as individual membrane cushion can be replaced.
  3. What are the limiting conditions for Feed BOD & COD in INDION® DTRO?

    There are no such feed limiting conditions for COD & BOD in INDION® DTRO
  4. What are the types of cycles?

    1. Service Cycle – It is service cycle for filtration process
    2. Rinsing /Flushing Cycle – Flushing cycle with permeate water
    3. Cleaning in place (CIP) Cycle – Chemical cleaning in process cycle
    4. MGF backwash.
  5. What are the basic important parameters for monitoring INDION® DTRO?

    Basic important parameters for monitoring are Conductivity, TSS, COD, pH, ORP, Total Hardness, Silica and Temperature
  6. What are the advantages of INDION® DTRO over conventional RO system?

    Aspects of comparison

    Spiral RO

    Disc- Tube RO


    Extensive pre-treatment required

    Less pre-treatment required

    Silt Density Index

    SDI < 5

    SDI  15 to 20


    < 1 NTU

    < 10 NTU

    Oil & Grease


    10 ppm

    Minimal pre-treatment for Suspended solids



    Chemical Treatment

    As per requirement

    As per requirement

    Feed Quality Fluctuation

    Unable to cope up with excess feed fluctuations.

    Can handle fluctuations in feed quality


    Depends on type of feed effluent and type of membrane.

     Depends on type of feed effluent and type of membrane.

    BOD & COD

    <30 ppm

    No limiting conditions

    Membrane replacement cost

    Entire membrane element need  to be replaced

    Individual membrane cushions can be replaced.

    Average membrane life



AMBC- All Membrane Brine Concentrator

  1. What is AMBC?

    The AMBC stands for All Membrane Brine Concentrator, it is advanced technology achieved brine concentration via osmotically assisted reverse osmosis based on combination of forward osmosis and reverse osmosis.
  2. What are the advantages of AMBC system?

    1. Operates on high salinity waters that are beyond the reach of a conventional reverse osmosis process
    2. Low power consumption compared to other competing processes
    3. Simple operation and high reliability
    4. It utilises electrical power, eliminating the use of thermal energy and the complexities common to other brine concentration approaches; Could be incorporated into existing seawater RO facilities with zero or little impact on the existing operations
    5. It reduces the size of expensive, high maintenance and complex thermal brine concentrators and crystallisers in zero liquid discharge (ZLD) applications by significantly reducing the feed fluid volume.
  3. 3. Is it possible to concentrate high salinity effluent upto TDS concentration of 140000 ppm by membrane based system?

    Yes we can concentrate high TDS effluent upto 140000 ppm with help of AMBC system.
  4. Does AMBC require thermal energy?

    The AMBC process uses only electrical energy and does not require any thermal energy or vapour compression.
  5. Does AMBC system require energy lesser than thermal brine concentrator?

    Yes. AMBC based system require fraction of energy compared to thermal energy brine concentrator.
  6. What pretreatment required for AMBC?

    The pre-treatment requirements for AMBC are similar to that of a RO system. Impurities that can scale or foul the membranes are needed to be minimized prior to AMBC.
  7. What operating pressure required in AMBC system?

    The operating pressures required in AMBC system are very much similar to that of seawater desalination RO systems i.e 60 – 70 bar.

Waste to Energy


    The INDION® Waste to Energy System design is a cost-effective treatment that takes a radically different approach using a novel combination of proven technology to manage the problems of sludge, organic waste /municipal solid waste.
  2. What mean by Organic solid waste?

    Organic Solid waste means any segregated garbage or refuse from residential, industrial, or commercial areas etc.
  3. What is sewage sludge?

    Sewage sludge is the sludge generated from Sewage treatment plants (STP) provided for community hotels/institute/universities.
  4. How INDION® WASTE TO ENERGY SYSTEM minimizes disposal cost of sewage sludge?

    INDION® WASTE TO ENERGY SYSTEM is based on co digestion of organic solid waste and sewage sludge, which reduces the quantity of sludge.
  5. What are the basic steps of INDION® WASTE TO ENERGY SYSTEM?

    1. Reception of Segregated Organic Solid Waste and STP sludge conditioning
    2. Mechanical pre-treatment- To Shred organic waste and homogenize it with thickened sewage sludge via macerator.
    3. Biogas handling system: Biogas generated from system shall be treated and converted to electrical power and heat.
    4. Digested sludge shall be dewatered and used as fertilizer/ manure. The heat from the biogas engine can also be used to dry the excess sludge to produce an organic fertilizer that meets the required hygienic standards for use in agriculture and landscaping.
  6. What are major advantages of INDION® WASTE TO ENERGY SYSTEM?

    1. High Biogas Generation which can be used as Clean Energy source
    2. Generation of Organic Rich Fertilizer
    3. No disposal cost for Sewage sludge and Organic waste.

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